Water tank near the town of Chaparral, New Mexico...there's no chaparral there.
From the TV show, High Chaparral...there's no chaparral there either.
Below is a list of selected references for you if you would like to do further research on the chaparral. If you find this resource helpful, we would really appreciate it if you would consider becoming a member of the California Chaparral Institute to help support our work. Membership information can be found on the our Membership Page. THANKS!
Allen, C. D., M. Savage, D. A. Falk, K. F. Suckling, T. W. Swetnam, T. Schulke, P. B. Stacey, P. Morgan, M. Hoffman, and J. T. Klingel. 2002. Ecological restoration of southwestern ponderosa pine ecosystems: a broad perspective. Ecological Applications 12:1418-1433.
Axelrod, D.A. 1989. Age and origin of chaparral. The California Chaparral: Paradigms Reexamined. Symposium, the NaturalHistoryMuseum of Los AngelesCounty.
Barbour, M.G. and R.A. Minnich. 2000. Californian upland forests and woodlands. In North American Terrestrial Vegetation, M.G. Barbour and W.D. Billings (eds.). CambridgeUniversity Press.
Barrett, L. A. 1935. A record of forest and field fires in California from the days of the early explorers to the creation of the forest reserves. San Francisco, CA: USDAForest Service.
Bartholomew, B. 1970. Bare zone between California shrub and grassland communities: the role of animals. Science 170: 1210-1212. Bauder, E.T. 1987. San Diego vernal pools: Recent and projected losses; their condition; and threats to their existence, 1979-1990. Report prepared for Endangered Plant Project, California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, CA. Beauchamp, R.M. 1986. A flora of San Diego County, California. Sweetwater Press, National City, California. Bentley, J.R., et al. 1956. Range Species Recommended for Sowing on cleared Brushland in California. U.S.Forest Serv. Pacif. S.W. For. & Range Exp. Sta. Res. Note 111. 10 p. Biswell, H.H., Taber, R.D., Hedrick, D.W. & Schultz, A.M. 1952. Management of chamise brushlands for game in the north coast range of California. California Fish and Game 38: 453-484. Black, C.H. 1987. Biomass, nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation over a southern California fire cycle chronosequence. In J.D. Tenhunen, F.M. Catarino, O.L. Lange, and W.C. Oechel (eds.), Plant Response to Stress: Functional Analysis in Mediterranean Ecosystems. Berlin: Springer, pp. 445-458. Bolsinger, C.L. 1989. Shrubs of California chaparral, timberland, and woodland: areas, ownership, and stand characteristics. Resource Bulletin PNW-RB-160. USDAForest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station.
CDF: California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection. 2004. California Fire Siege 2003. The Story. October 21-November 4, 2003. http://www.fire.ca.gov/php/fire_er_siege.php Chamberlin, T.C. 1890. The method of multiple working hypotheses. Science: Feb. 7. Also reprinted in 1965. Science 148: 754-759.
Chester, T. 2004b. http://tchester.org/sgm/lists/lion_attacks_ca.html Cleland, Robert Glass. 1951. The Cattle on a Thousand Hills: Southern California, 1850-1880. Cohen, J.D. 1999. Reducing the wildland fire threat to homes: where and how much? USDAForest Service Gen. Tech. Report PSW-GTR-173, pp 189-195.
Cohen, J.D. 2000. Preventing disaster: home ignitability in the wildland-urban interface. Journal of Forestry 98: 15-21Cohen, J. and J. Saveland. 1997. Structure ignition assessment can help reduce fire damages in the W-UI. Fire Mgt. Notes 57:19-23. Coleman , Ronny J. 1995. Structural Wildland Intermix. In: The Biswell Symposium: Fire Issues and Solutions in the Urban Interface and Wildland Ecosystems, pp. 141-145. USDAForest Service Gen. Tech. Rept. PSW-GTR-158. Conrad, S. 1993. The effects of fire and post-fire rehabilitation measures on surface erosion and vegetation development in California chaparral. Work Plan #8, 1993-94. Fiscal Agreement 8CA53048 (PSW-86-CL-031). LosPadresNational Forest Files. Conard, S. G., and D. R. Weise. 1998. Management of fire regime, fuels, and fire effects in southern California chaparral: lessons from the past and thoughts for the future. Tall Timbers Ecology Conference Proceedings 20:342-350. Connell, J.H. 1990. Apparent versus “real” competition in plants, p. 9-25. In J.B. Grace, and D. Tilman (eds.), Perspectives on Plant Competition. Academic Press, San Diego. Cooper, C. F. 1960. Changes in vegetation, structure, and growth of southwestern pine forests since white settlement. Ecological Monographs 30:129-164.
Countryman, C.M. 1974. Can southern California wildland conflagrations be stopped? Berkeley: USDAForest Service, PacificSouthwestForest and Range Experiment Station, Gen. Tech. Note PSW-7. Covington, W.W., and M.M. Moore. 1994. Southwestern ponderosa forest structure: changes since Euro-American settlement. Journal of Forestry 92: 39-47. CWIS, California wetlands information system. 2002. California vernal pool regions. San Diego Region. http://maphost.dfg.ca.gov/wetlands/vp_asses_rept/san_diego.htm D'Antonio, Carla M., Dennis C. Odion, and Claudia Tyler. 1993. Invasion of maritime chaparral by the alien succulent Carpobrotus edulis: The roles of fire and herbivory. Oecologia 95: 14-21. Dean, E. 2004. Upcoming changes in flowering plant family names: those pesky taxonomists are at it again. Fremonita 30: 1-12. DeSimone, D. 1995. California’s coastal sage scrub. Fremontia 23: 3-8.Dodge, J. M. 1975. Vegetational changes associated with land use and fire history in San DiegoCounty. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Riverside. Fabritius, S. and S. D. Davis. 2000. Increased fire frequency promotes vegetation-type conversion in southern California chaparral: a 15-year study. In: Mediterranean-type ecosystems: Past, present and future, p.18. Medecos 2000, Ninth International Conference on Mediteranean-type ecosystems, 11-15 September, Stellenbosch, South Africa. Conference abstracts. Fenn, M.E. M.A. Poth, P.H. Dunn, and S.C. Barro. 1993. Microbial N and biomass respiration an N mineralization in soils beneath two chaparral species along a fire-induced age gradient. Soil Biol. Biochem. 25:457-466. Flematti, G.R., E.L. Ghisalberti, K.W. Dixon, R.D. Trengove. 2004. A compound from smoke that promotes seed germination. AAAS. Science Express Brevia. July 8. Fosberg, M.A. 1965. A case study of the Santa Ana winds in the San Gabriel Mountains. Berkeley: USDAForest Service, PacificSouthwestForest and Range Experiment Station, Res. Note PSW-78.
Green, L.R. 1981. Burning by prescription in chaparral. Berkeley: USDAForest Service, PacificSouthwestForest and Range Experiment Station, Gen. Tech. Report PSW-51. Griffin, J.R. 1982. Pine seedlings, native ground cover, and Lolium multiflorum on the Marble Cone burn, Santa Lucia Range, California. Madrono 29: 177-188. Haidinger, T.L., and J.E. Keeley. 1993. Role of high fire frequency in destruction of mixed chaparral. Madrono 40: 141-147. Halsey, R.W. 2004. In search of allelopathy: an eco-historical view of the investigation of chemical inhibition in California coastal sage scrub and chamise chaparral. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 131: 343-367.
Halsey, R.W. 2006. Weather, fuels, and suppression during the 2003 Cedar Fire: Which variables made the critical difference? In 2003 Southern California Fires: Science Insights into the Fire Event and Recovery special session (J.E. Keeley, organizer). Proceedings, 3rd International Fire Ecology and Management Conference. Association for Fire Ecology, San Diego, CA. Hanes, T. L. 1971. Succession after fire in the chaparral of southern California. Ecol. Monographs 41: 27-52. Harper, J.L. 1975. Book review of Allelopathy, Physiological Ecology, by Elroy Rice. The Quart. Rev. of Biol. 50: 493-495. Hickman, J.C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson manual, higher plants of California. University of California Press.Hubbard, R.F. 1986. Stand age and growth dynamics in chamise chaparral. Master’s thesis, San DiegoStateUniversity, San Diego, California. Jacobsen, A.L., S.D. Davis, S. Fabritius. 2004. Vegetation type conversion in response to short fire return intervals in California chaparral. Annual Meeting of the Ecological Society of America, PortlandOR. Abstract. Jones, G., J. Chew, R. Silverstein, C. Stalling, J. Sullivan, J. Troutwine, D. Weise, and D. Garwood. 2003. Spatial analysis of fuel treatment options for chaparral on the AngelesNational Forest. In press. USDA Forest Service Gen Tech Rep. PSW-GTR-xxx. 2003: xx-xx. Jones & Stokes. 1987. Sliding toward extinction: the state of California's natural heritage, 1987. California Nature Conservancy, San Francisco, CA. Jones, D. 2004. Governor’s Blue Ribbon Fire Commission, State of California. Transcript of Proceedings, January 7, 2004.Keeley, J.E. 1973. The adaptive significant of obligate-seeding shrubs in the chaparral. Master’s thesis, CaliforniaStateUniversity, San Diego. 79 p. Keeley, J.E. 1975. Longevity of nonsprouting Ceanothus. American Midland Naturalist 93: 504-507.Keeley, J.E. 1991a. Resilience to fire does not imply adaptation to fire: an example from the California chaparral. Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference, 17th Proceedings, pgs. 113-119. Keeley, J.E. 1991b. Seed germination and life history syndromes in the California chaparral. The Botanical Review 57: 81-116.Keeley, J.E. 1992. Demographic structure of California chaparral in the long-term absence of fire. Journal of Vegetation Sci. 3: 79-90. Keeley, J.E. 1993. Smoke-induced flowering in the fire-lily Cyrtanthus ventricosus. S. Afr. J. Bot. 59: 638. Keeley, J.E. 1995. Future of California floristics and systematics: wildfire threats to the California flora. Madrono 42: 175-179. Keeley, J. E. 1998a. Postfire ecosystem recovery and management: the October 1993 large fire episode in California. Pages 69-90 in J. M. Moreno, editor. Large forest fires. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands. Keeley, J.E. 1998b. Coupling demography, physiology and evolution in chaparral shrubs. Landscape Degradation and Biodiversity of Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems. Ecological Studies, Vol. 136. Keeley, J.E. 2000. Chaparral. In North American Terrestrial Vegetation, M.G. Barbour and W.D. Billings (eds.). CambridgeUniversity Press. Keeley, J.E. 2002. Native American impacts on fire regimes of the California coastal ranges. Journal of Biogeography 29: 303-320. Keeley, J. E. 2004a. Impact of antecedent climate on fire regimes in coastal California. International Journal of Wildland Fire 13:173-182. Keeley, J.E. 2004b. Invasive plants and fire management in California Mediterranean-climate ecosystems. In M. Arianoutsou (ed) 10th MEDECOS – International Conference on Ecology, Conservation and Management, Rhodes Island, Greece, electronic, no page numbers.
Keeley, J. E., C. J. Fotheringham, and M. Morais. 1999. Reexamining fire suppression impacts on brushland fire regimes. Science 284:1829-1832. Keeley, J. E., C. J. Fotheringham, and M. Moritz. 2004. Lessons from the 2003 wildfires in southern California. Journal of Forestry 103(9). Keeley, S. C., J.E. Keeley, S.M. Hutchinson, A.W. Johnson. 1981. Post fire succession of herbaceous flora in southern California chaparral. Ecology 62: 1608-1621. Kelch, D.G. 2004. Consider the lilies. Fremontia 30: 23-29. Kelly, 1990. Population Ecology an Social Organization of Dusky-footed Woodrats, Neotoma fuscipes. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley. 191 p. Kinney, A. 1887. Report on the forests of the counties of Los Angeles, San Bernardino, and San Diego, California. Sacramento: First Biennial Report, CaliforniaState Board of Forestry. Kummerow, J. 1981. Structure of roots and root systems. In DiCastri, F., D.W. Goodall, R. L. Specht (eds.), Ecosystems of the World II. Mediterranean-Type Shrublands. Kummerow, J., Krause, D., and Jow, W. 1977. Root systems of chaparral shrubs. Oecologia 29: 163-177.Lanner, R.M. 2002. Conifers of California. Cachuma Press, Los Olivos, California. Second printing. Larigauderie, A., T.W. Hubbard, and J. Kummerow. 1990. Growth dynamics of two chaparral shrub species with time after fire. Madrono 37: 225-236. Larson, T. 2000. Fairy Shrimp, the Mayor of Poway, and the City of San Diego. San Diego Weekly Reader, page28, 4/20/2000. Loomis, J., P. Wohlgemuth, A. Gonzale-Caban, and D. English. 2003. Economic benefits of reducing fire-related sediment in southwestern fire-prone ecosystems. Water Resources Research 39(No 9, WES 3): 1-8. Marion, L. H. 1943. The distribution of Adenostoma sparsifolium. American Midland Naturalist 29: 106-116.McDonald, Jeff. 2002. San Diego Union-Tribune. November 30. McMaster, G.S., P.H. Zedler. 1981. Delayed seed dispersal in Pinus torreyana (Torrey pine). Oecologia 51: 62-66. Mensing, S. A., J. Michaelsen, and R. Byrne. 1999. A 560-year record of Santa Ana fires reconstructed from charcoal deposited in the Santa Barbara Basin, California. Quaternary Research 51:295-305. Miller, C. 2004. Wildfire underwriting in California. Insurance Information Network of California, Los Angeles, CA. Minnich, R. A. 1983. Fire mosaics in southern California and northern Baja California. Science 219:1287-1294. Minnich, R. A. 1988. The biogeography of fire in the San Bernardino Mountains, California. University of California Publications in Botany 28:1-120. Minnich, R. A. 1998. Landscapes, land-use and fire policy: where do large fires come from? Pages 133-158 in J. M. Moreno, editor. Large forest fires. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands.
Minnich, R. A., and R. J. Dezzani. 1991. Suppression, fire behavior, and fire magnitudes in Californian chaparral at the urban/wildland interface. Pages 67-83 in J. J. DeVries, editor. California watersheds at the urban interface, proceedings of the third biennial watershed conference. University of California, Davis. Water Resources Center, Report No. 75.
Minnich, R. A., and Y. H. Chou. 1997. Wildland fire patch dynamics in the chaparral of southern California and northern Baja California. International Journal of Wildland Fire 7:221. Minnich, R. A., M. G. Barbour, J. H. Burk, and R. F. Fernau. 1995. Sixty years of change in Californian conifer forests of the San Bernardino Mountains. Conservation Biology 9:902-914. Mooney, H.A. 1977. Southern coastal scrub. In M.G. Barbour and J. Major (eds.), Terrestrial Vegetation of California. Wiley, New York. Pp. 471-478. Mooney, H.A. unpublished data from Keeley, J. E., Keeley, S.C. 1988. Chaparral, Ch. 6., North American Terrestrial Vegetation. Edited by M.G. Barbour and W.D. Billings. Moritz, M. A. 2003. Spatiotemporal analysis of controls on shrubland fire regimes: age dependency and fire hazard. Ecology 84:351-361. Moritz, M.A., J.E. Keeley, E.A. Johnson, and A.A. Schaffner. 2004. Testing a basic assumption of shrubland fire management: How important is fuel age? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 2:67-72. Multiple Species Conservation Program. 1998. City of San Diego. Page 3.27. Muller, C.H., R.B. Hunawalt, and J.K. McPherson. 1968. Allelopathic control of herb growth in the fire cycle of California chaparral. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 95: 225-231. Muller, C.H., W.H. Muller, and B.L. Haines. 1964. Volatile growth inhibitors produced by aromatic shrubs. Science 143: 471-473. Nadkarni, Nalini M. and Dennis C. Odion. 1985. Effects of seeding exotic grass Lolium multiflorum on native seedling regeneration following fire in a chaparral community. Pages 115-121 in Chaparral Ecosystem Research Conference, Santa Barbara Ca., 1985. CaliforniaWaterResourcesCenter Report no. 62. Nadkarni, N.M. and D.C. Oechel. 1991. Fire intensity effects on germination of shrubs and herbs in southern California chaparral. Ecology 76: 1993-2004. NPS, United State Department of the Interior, National Park Service. 2004. Environmental Impact Statement Fire Management Plan. Santa MonicaMountains National Recreation Area, CA Odion, Dennis C. 2005. Pyrodiversity begets biodiversity in the Klamath Region. Klamath Kaleidescope 2: 8-9. National Park Service, Klamath Network. Odion, Dennis C. and Claudia M. Tyler. 2002. Are long fire-free periods needed to maintain the rare, fire recruiting shrub Arctostaphylos morroensis (Ericaceae)? Conservation Ecology 6: 4. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol6/iss2/art4/print.pdf. Odion, Dennis C. 2000. Seed banks of long-unburned stands of maritime chaparral: Composition, germination behavior and survival with fire. Madroño47: 195-203. Odion, Dennis C., Frank W. Davis. 2000. Fire, soil heating, and the formation of vegetation patterns in chamise chaparral. Ecological Monographs 70: 149-169. Odens, P. 1971. The Indians and I. Visits with Dieguenos, Quechans, FortMojaves, Zumis, Hopis, Navajos and Piutes. Imperial Printers, El Centro, CA. Oechel, W.C. 1982. Carbon balanced studies in chaparral shrubs: implication for biomass production. In C.E. Conrad and W.C. Oechel (eds), Proceedings of the symposium on dynamics and management of Mediterranean-type ecosystems. USDA Forest Service, PacificSouthwestForest and Range Experiment Station general technical report PSW-58.
Olmstead, R. 2004. What ever happened to the scrophulariaceae? Fremontia 30: 13-22. Patric, J.H. and Hanes, T.L. 1964. Chaparral succession in a San GabrielMountain area of California. Ecology 68: 434-443. Payson, T.E., and J.D. Cohen. 1990. Chamise chaparral dead fuel fraction is not reliably predicted by age. Western Journal of Forestry 5:127-131. Purer, Edith A. 1939. Ecological study of vernal pools, San DiegoCounty. Ecology 20: 217-229. Quick, C.R. and A.S. Quick. 1961. Germination of Ceanothus seeds. Madrono 16: 23-30. Radtke, K.W.H. 1982. A Homeowner’s Guide to Fire and Watershed Management at the Chaparral/Urban Interface.PacificSouthwestForest & Range Exp. Station, Forest Service U.S. Department of Agriculture and County of Los Angeles. 36 p. Radtke, K.W.H. 1983. Living More Safely at the Chaparral-Urban Interface. PSW-67. Berkeley, CA: PacificSouthwestForest & Range Experiment Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. 51 p. Radtke, K.W.H. 1985. Proceedings-Living in the Chaparral of Southern California. K. Radtke, technical coordinator and scientific editor. Focused articles on Fire, Vegetation, Watershed Management; Land Use and Planning; Disaster Prevention, Preparation, and Assistance by Anthony, Partain, Grisselle, Gray, Holtom, Loeher, Paule, Partain, Potter, Radtke, Severynen, Wakimoto, Zinke. Los AngelesCountyMuseum of Natural History, Los Angeles, California; October 20, 1984. National Foundation For Environmental Safety in cooperation with the National Park Service. 72 p. Radtke, K.W.H. 1994. Postfire Hydroseeding-Damaging or Protecting Wildland Watersheds? (A Waste of Public Funds to the Tune of Millions of Dollars?).Prepared for theNational Foundation For Environmental Safety as News Release/Public Information Paper. March 15, 1994. 5 p. Radtke, K.W.H., A.M. Arndt, and R.H. Wakimoto. 1981. Fire History of the Santa MonicaMountains. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Dynamics and Management of Mediterranean-type Ecosystems, June 1981: 22-26: San Diego, CA PSW Forest & Range Exp. Sta., USDA Forest Service. Gen Tech. Report PSW-58 1982: 438-443. Regelbrugge, J.C. 2000. Role of prescribed burning in the management of chaparral ecosystems in southern California. In J.E. Keeley, M.B. Keeley, and C.J. Fotheringham (eds.) 2nd Interface between Ecology and Land Development in California. Sacramento: US Geological Survey Open-File Rep. 00-02, pp. 19-26. Rhode, D. 2002. Early holocene juniper woodland and chaparral taxa in the central baja California peninsula, Mexico. Quaternary Research 57: 102-108. Rice, R. M. 1973. Sowing Ryegrass on Burned Watersheds is a Mistake Unpubl. Rept. 20 p.Rice, R. M., R. P. Crouse and E.S. Corbett. 1963. Emergency Measures to Control Erosion after a Fire on the San Dimas Experimental Forest. U.S.D.A. Misc. Publ. No 970. 8 p. Romme, W.H., 1982. Fire and landscape diversity in subalpine forests of YellowstoneNational Park. Eco. Monographs 52: 199-221. Rothermel, R.C. 1993. Mann Gulch fire: a race that couldn’t be won. USDAForest Service, Intermountain Research Station. Gen. Technical Report INT-299. Rowntree, Lester 1939. Flowering Shrubs of California and Their Value to the Gardener. StanfordUniversity Press. Pg. 20-21 second edition, 1948. Rundel, P.W. 1981. Structural and chemical components of flammability. In H.A. Mooney, T.M. Bonnicksen, N.L. Christensen, J.E. Lotan, and W.A. Reiners (eds.). Fire regimes and ecosystem properties. General Technical Report QO-26, USDA, Forest Service, WashingtonD.C. Sawyer, J.O, and T. Keeler-Wolf. 1995. A Manual of California Vegetation. California Native Plant Society.Schaffer, J.P. 1993. California’s geological history and changing landscapes. In Hickman, J.C. (ed.) The Jepson Manual, Higher Plants of California. University of California Press. Schimper, A.F.W. 1903. Plant geography on a physiological basis (translated from the 1898 version by W.R. Fisher). Clarendon Press, Oxford. Schlesinger, W.H, and D.S. Gill. 1978. Demographic studies of the chaparral shrub Ceanothus megacarpus in the Santa Ynez Mountains. Ecology 59: 1256-1263. Schroeder, M.J., et al. 1964. Synoptic weather types associated with critical fire weather. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards, Institute for Applied Technology, AD 449‑630. 372 p. Schwilk, D.W. 2002. Plant evolution in fire prone environments. Ph.D. thesis, Stanford University, California. Simpson, L.B. 1938. California in 1792. The expedition of Jose Longinos Martinez. Henry E. Huntington Library and ArtGallery, San Marino, CA. Spech, T.L. 1969. A comparison of the sclerophyllous vegetation characteristics of mediterranean type climates in France, California, and southern Australia. I: Structure, morphology and succession. Aust. J. Bot. 17: 227-292.
Storer, T.I. and L.P. Tevis, Jr. 1955. California Grizzly. University of California Press. Swetnam, T.W. and C.H. Baisan. 1996. Historical fire regime patterns in the southwestern United States since AD 1700. In C.D. Allen (ed.) Fire Effects in Southwestern Forests: Proceedings of the Second La Mesa Fire Symposium, Los Alamos, New Mexico, March 29-31, 1994. USDA. General Technical Report RM-GTR-286.
Wells, P.V. 1969. The relation between mode of reproduction and extent of speciation in woody genera of California chaparral. Evolution 23: 264-267. Westerling AL, Gershunov A, Cayan DR, Barnett TP (2002) Long lead statistical forecasts of area burned in western U.S. wildfires by ecosystem province. International Journal of Wildland Fire 11, 257-266.
Zedler, P.H. 1995. Fire frequency in southern California shrublands: biological effects and management options, pp. 101-112 in J.E. Keeley and T. Scott (eds.), Brushfires in California wildlands: ecology and resource management. International Association of Wildland Fire, Fairfield, Wash.
Zedler, P.H., C.R. Gautier, G.S. McMaster. 1983. Vegetation change in response to extreme events: the effect of a short interval between fires in California chaparral and coastal sage scrub. Ecology 64: 809-818.
Zedler, P.H., and C.A. Zammit. 1989. A population-based critique of concepts of change in the chaparral. In S.C. Keeley (ed.), The California Chaparral: Paradigms Reexamined. The NaturalHistoryMuseum of Los AngelesCounty, 1986.
Zedler, P.H., Seiger, L.A. 2000. Age Mosaics and Fire Size in Chaparral: A Simulation Study. In 2nd Interface Between Ecology and Land Development in California. USGS Open-File Report 00-02, pp. 9-18.